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Added: 02.2008

mcs(1) mcs(1)


NAME

      mcs, gmcs, smcs - Mono C# Compiler (1.0, 2.0, Moonlight)

SYNOPSIS

      mcs [option] [source-files]

DESCRIPTION

      mcs is the Mono C# compiler, an implementation of the ECMA-334 language
      specification.  You can pass one or more options to drive the compiler,
      and  a set of source files.  Extra options or arguments can be provided
      in a response file.  Response files are referenced by prepending the  @
      symbol to the response file name.
      The  mcs compiler is used to compile against the 1.x profile and imple‐
      ments C# 1.0 and 2.0 with the exception of generics and nullable types.
      The gmcs compiler is used to compile against the 2.0 profile and imple‐
      ments the complete C# 2.0 specification including generics.
      The smcs compiler is used to compile against the  Silverlight/Moonlight
      profile.   This  profile  is  designed  to  be  used  for creating Sil‐
      verlight/Moonlight applications that will run on a web  browser.    The
      API  exposed  by this profile is a small subset of the 2.0 API (even if
      it is commonly referred as the 2.1 API, this API is a small  subset  of
      2.0  with  a  few extensions), in addition this profile by default runs
      with -langversion:linq which turns on the C# 3.0 language by default.
      The Mono C# compiler accepts the same command  line  options  that  the
      Microsoft  C# compiler does.  Those options can start with a slash or a
      dash (/checked is the same as -checked).   Additionally  some  GNU-like
      options  are  supported, those begin with "--".  All MCS-specific flags
      which are not available in the Microsoft C# compiler are available only
      with the GNU-style options.
      C#  source  files  must  end with a ".cs" extension.  Compilation of C#
      source code requires all the files that make up a  library,  module  or
      executable to be provided on the command line.  There is no support for
      partial compilation.  To achieve the benefits of  partial  compilation,
      you should compile programs into their own assemblies, and later refer‐
      ence them with the "-r" flag.
      The Mono C# compiler generates images (.exe  files)  that  contain  CIL
      byte  code  that can be executed by any system that implements a Common
      Language Infrastructure virtual machine such as the Microsoft .NET run‐
      time  engine  on  Windows  or  the Mono runtime engine on Unix systems.
      Executables are not bound to a specific CPU or operating system.
      The Mono C# compiler  by  default  only  references  three  assemblies:
      mscorlib.dll, System.dll and System.Xml.dll.   If you want to reference
      extra libraries you must manually specify them using the -pkg:  command
      line  option or the -r: command line option.  Alternatively if you want
      to get all of the System libraries, you can use the -pkg:dotnet command
      line option.


OPTIONS

      --about
             Displays information about the Mono C# compiler
      --addmodule:MODULE1[,MODULE2]
             Includes the specified modules in the resulting assembly.
      -checked, -checked+
             Sets  the default compilation mode to `checked'.  This makes all
             the math operations checked (the default is unchecked).
      -checked-
             Sets the default compilation mode to  `unchecked'.   This  makes
             all the math operations unchecked (this is the default).
      -codepage:ID
             Specifies the code page used to process the input files from the
             point it is specified on.  By default files will be processed in
             the  environment-dependent  native code page.  The compiler will
             also automatically detect Unicode files that  have  an  embedded
             byte  mark  at the beginning.  Other popular encodings are 28591
             (Latin1), 1252 (iso-8859-1) and 65001 (UTF-8).  MCS  supports  a
             couple  of  shorthands:  "utf8"  can  be  used  to specify utf-8
             instead of using the cryptic  65001  and  "reset"  restores  the
             automatic  handling  of  code  pages.   These shorthands are not
             available on the Microsoft compiler.
      -define:SYMLIST, -d:SYMLIST
             Defines the symbol listed by the semi-colon separated list  SYM‐
             LIST  SYMBOL.  This can be tested in the source code by the pre-
             processor, or can be used by methods that have been tagged  with
             the Conditional attribute.
      -debug, -debug+, -g
             Generate  debugging  information.   To  obtain stack traces with
             debugging information, you need to invoke the mono runtime  with
             the `--debug' flag.  This debugging information is stored inside
             the assembly as a resource.
      -debug-
             Do not generate debugging information.
      -delaysign+
             Only embed the strongname public  key  into  the  assembly.  The
             actual  signing must be done in a later stage using the SN tool.
             This is useful to protect the private  key  during  development.
             Note  that delay signing can only be done using a strongname key
             file (not a key container). The option is equivalent to  includ‐
             ing  [assembly:  AssemblyDelaySign  (true)] in your source code.
             Compiler option takes precedence over the attributes.
      -delaysign-
             Default. Strongname (sign) the assembly using  the  strong  name
             key  file  (or container). The option is equivalent to including
             [assembly: AssemblyDelaySign (false)] in your source code.  Com‐
             piler option takes precedence over the attributes.
      -doc:FILE
             Extracts  the  C#/XML  documentation  from  the  source code and
             stores in in the given FILE.
      --expect-error X L
             The compiler will expect the code to generate an error named `X'
             in line `L'.  This is only used by the test suite.
      --fatal
             This  is  used for debugging the compiler.  This makes the error
             emission generate an exception that can be caught by a debugger.
      -keyfile:KEYFILE
             Strongname (sign) the output assembly using the key pair present
             in the specified strong name key file (snk). A full key pair  is
             required   by   default  (or  when  using  delaysign-).  A  file
             containing only the public key can be used with delaysign+.  The
             option  is  equivalent  to  including [assembly: AssemblyKeyFile
             ("KEYFILE")] in your source code.  Compiler option takes  prece‐
             dence over the attributes.
      -keycontainer:CONTAINER
             Strongname (sign) the output assembly using the key pair present
             in the specified container. Note that delaysign+ is ignored when
             using  key  containers.  The  option  is equivalent to including
             [assembly: AssemblyKeyName ("CONTAINER")] in your  source  code.
             Compiler option takes precedence over the attributes.
      -langversion:TEXT
             The  option  specifies  the  version of the language to use. The
             feature set is different in each C# version. This switch can  be
             used  to  force  the compiler to allow only a subset of the fea‐
             tures.  The possible values are:
             Default
                    Instruct compiler to use the latest  version.  Equivalent
                    is  to omit the switch (this currently defaults to the C#
                    2.0 language specification).
             ISO-1  Restrict compiler to use only first ISO standardized fea‐
                    tures.   The  usage  of features such as generics, static
                    classes, anonymous methods will lead to error.
             ISO-2  Restrict compiler to use only the second ISO standardized
                    features.   This  allows  the  use  of  generics,  static
                    classes, iterators and anonymous methods for example.
             linq   This enables the C# 3.0 support.   Only a few features of
                    C#  3.0 have been implemented in the Mono C# compiler, so
                    not everything is available.
             Notice that this flag only controls the language features avail‐
             able  to  the programmer, it does not control the kind of assem‐
             blies produced.  Programs compiled with mcs will  reference  the
             1.1 APIs, Programs compiled with gmcs reference the 2.0 APIs.
      -lib:PATHLIST
             Each  path specified in the comma-separated list will direct the
             compiler to look for libraries in that specified path.
      -L PATH
             Directs the compiler to look  for  libraries  in  the  specified
             path.  Multiple paths can be provided by using the option multi‐
             ple times.
      -main:CLASS
             Tells the compiler which CLASS contains the entry point.  Useful
             when you are compiling several classes with a Main method.
      -nostdlib, -nostdlib+
             Use  this  flag  if  you want to compile the core library.  This
             makes the compiler load its internal  types  from  the  assembly
             being compiled.
      -noconfig, -noconfig+
             Disables  the  default compiler configuration to be loaded.  The
             compiler by default has references to the system assemblies.
      -nowarn:WARNLIST
             Makes the compiler ignore warnings specified in the  comma-sepa‐
             rated list WARNLIST>
      -optimize, -optimize+, -optimize-
             Controls  whether to perform optimizations on the code.   -opti‐
             mize and -optimize+ will turn on optimizations, -optimize-  will
             turn it off.  The default in mcs is to optimize+.
      -out:FNAME, -o FNAME
             Names the output file to be generated.
      --parse
             Used  for  benchmarking.  The compiler will only parse its input
             files.
      -pkg:package1[,packageN]
             Reference assemblies for the given packages.  The compiler  will
             invoke pkg-config --libs on the set of packages specified on the
             command line to obtain libraries and directories to compile  the
             code.   This is typically used with third party components, like
             this:
                       $ mcs -pkg:gtk-sharp demo.cs
             -pkg:dotnet
                    This will instruct the compiler to reference the System.*
                    libraries available on a typical dotnet framework instal‐
                    lation, notice that this does not include all of the Mono
                    libraries,  only the System.* ones.  This is a convenient
                    shortcut for those porting code.
             -pkg:olive
                    Use this to reference the "Olive" libraries (the 3.0  and
                    3.5 extended libraries).
             -pkg:silver
                    References  the  assemblies  for  creating Moonlight/Sil‐
                    verlight applications.  This is automatically  used  when
                    using  the  smcs compiler, but it is here when developers
                    want to use it with the gmcs compiler.
             -pkg:silverdesktop
                    Use this option to create Moonlight/Silverlight  applica‐
                    tions  that  target  the  desktop.    This  option allows
                    developers to consume the Silverlight APIs with the  full
                    2.0  profile  API available to them, unlike smcs it gives
                    full access to all the APIs that are part of  Mono.   The
                    only  downside  is  that  applications  created with sil‐
                    verdesktop will not run on the browser.   Typically these
                    applications will be launched with the mopen command line
                    tool.
      -resource:RESOURCE[,ID]
             Embeds to the given resource file.  The optional ID can be  used
             to give a different name to the resource.  If not specified, the
             resource name will be the file name.
      -linkresource:RESOURCE[,ID]
             Links to the specified RESOURCE.  The optional ID can be used to
             give a name to the linked resource.
      -r:ASSEMBLY1[,ASSEMBLY2], -r ASSEMBLY1[,ASSEMBLY2]
             Reference  the  named  assemblies.  Use this to use classes from
             the named assembly in your program.  The assembly will be loaded
             from  either the system directory where all the assemblies live,
             or from the path explicitly given with the -L option.
      You can also use a semicolon to separate the assemblies  instead  of  a
      comma.
      -recurse:PATTERN, --recurse PATTERN
             Does recursive compilation using the specified pattern.  In Unix
             the shell will perform globbing, so you might  want  to  use  it
             like this:
                $ mcs -recurse:'*.cs'
      --stacktrace
             Generates  a stack trace at the time the error is reported, use‐
             ful for debugging the compiler.
      -target:KIND, -t:KIND
             Used to specify the desired target.  The  possible  values  are:
             exe   (plain  executable),  winexe  (Windows.Forms  executable),
             library (component libraries) and module (partial library).
      --timestamp
             Another debugging flag.  Used to display the  times  at  various
             points in the compilation process.
      -unsafe, -unsafe+
             Enables compilation of unsafe code.
      -v     Debugging. Turns on verbose yacc parsing.
      -v2    Turns on C# 2.0 language features.
      --version
             Shows the compiler version.
      -warnaserror, -warnaserror+
             Treat warnings as errors.
      -warn:LEVEL
             Sets the warning level.  0 is the lowest warning level, and 4 is
             the highest.  The default is 2.
      -win32res:FILE
             Specifies a Win32 resource file (.res) to be  bundled  into  the
             resulting assembly.
      -win32icon:FILE
             Attaches  the  icon  specified  in  FILE  on the output into the
             resulting assembly.
      --     Use this to stop option parsing, and allow option-looking param‐
             eters to be passed on the command line.


SPECIAL DEFINES

      The TRACE and DEBUG defines have a special meaning to the compiler.
      By  default  calls  to  methods  and  properties in the System.Diagnos‐
      tics.Trace class are not generated unless the TRACE symbol  is  defined
      (either through a "#define TRACE") in your source code, or by using the
      --define TRACE in the command line.
      By default calls to  methods  and  properties  in  the  System.Diagnos‐
      tics.Debug  class  are not generated unless the DEBUG symbol is defined
      (either through a "#define DEBUG") in your source code, or by using the
      --define DEBUG in the command line.
      Note  that  the effect of defining TRACE and DEBUG is a global setting,
      even if they are only defined in a single file.


DEBUGGING SUPPORT

      When using the "-debug" flag, MCS will generate a file with the  exten‐
      sion  .mdb  that  contains  the debugging information for the generated
      assembly.  This file is consumed by the Mono debugger (mdb).

NOTES

      During compilation the MCS compiler defines the __MonoCS__ symbol, this
      can  be  used by pre-processor instructions to compile Mono C# compiler
      specific code.   Please note that this symbol is only to test  for  the
      compiler,  and  is  not useful to distinguish compilation or deployment
      platforms.

AUTHORS

      The Mono C# Compiler was written by Miguel de Icaza, Ravi Pratap,  Mar‐
      tin  Baulig, Marek Safar and Raja Harinath.  The development was funded
      by Ximian, Novell and Marek Safar.


LICENSE

      The Mono Compiler Suite is released under the terms  of  the  GNU  GPL.
      Please  read  the accompanying `COPYING' file for details.  Alternative
      licensing for the compiler is available from Novell.


SEE ALSO

      mdb(1), mono(1), mopen(1), mint(1), sn(1)


BUGS

      To report bugs in the compiler, you must file them on our bug  tracking
      system, at: http://www.mono-project.com/Bugs

MAILING LIST

      The  Mono Mailing lists are listed at http://www.mono-project.com/Mail‐
      ing_Lists

MORE INFORMATION

      The Mono C# compiler was  developed  by  Novell,  Inc  (http://www.nov‐
      ell.com,  http) and is based on the ECMA C# language standard available
      here: http://www.ecma.ch/ecma1/STAND/ecma-334.htm
      The  home  page  for  the  Mono  C#  compiler  is  at  http://www.mono-
      project.com/CSharp_Compiler


                               6 January 2001                          mcs(1)

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